The LOTOS Group decided to set up its production facility in Gdansk, Poland on 7 March 1971. After 4 years, one of the most advanced petroleum production facilities in Europe was established here. The base oils produced by Lotos are of high quality selected by world-renowned oil brands, not just Lotos. Currently, the LOTOS Group has a network of petrol stations with more than 600 petrol stations. LOTOS OIL Sp.z o.o is part of the LOTOS group. The company's activities include the production and distribution of petroleum products, including fuel, bitumen products, auto oils, industrial oils and greases, oil-based, auto cosmetics and chemicals. Lotos Oil is an eco-friendly company, a market leader in its sector, which is constantly improving the professional development of its employees, knowledge and confidence of its partners. Currently, Lotos Oil has three production centers in Gdansk, Czechovice and Jaslo, as well as districts in Piotrkov, Trybunalski, a sales office in Warsaw and an administration office in Katowice.
Engine oils specifications - API and ACEA
When selecting oil for the car engine, its parameters can be found in the vehicle operating manual. They can be compared with the information on the product packaging. Vehicle engine oils can be selected according to specifications from SAE, API, ACEA and the vehicle manufacturer.
APIs (American Petroleum Institute) include:
1) Classes of petrol engine oils: SA… SM;
2) Classes of diesel oils: CA… CI-4.
The further the second letter of the specification and the higher the number in the alphabet, it is understood to be a higher grade oil.
Compared to the API classification system, ACEA specifications better meet the requirements of the most up-to-date European engines and driving conditions.
ACEA (Association of European Automotive Manufacturers)
1) Classes of petrol and diesel oils for passenger cars: A1 / B1, A3 / B3, A3 / B4 and A5 / B5.
2) Passenger car gasoline engines equipped with exhaust aftertreatment (oils compatible with catalysts) oil classes: C1, C2 and C3.
3) Diesel engine oil grades: E2, E4, E6 and E7, E9.
The European Union has smaller engine volumes, specially tuned engines and multi-valve systems.
Turbochargers are becoming increasingly popular. Many carmakers set and publish their factory standards, sometimes higher than those set by ACEA and API, in parallel to the ACEA and API specifications.
SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) - Oil Viscosity Classification
SAE indicates the oil viscosity grade.
VISCOSITY - is a property of the fluid that determines the fluidity of the oil. The higher the viscosity, the thicker the liquid (the lower its fluidity, the higher the viscosity). The lower the viscosity of the oil, the more it will maintain fluidity during cold temperatures when starting the engine.
VISCOSITY INDEX is a change in the viscosity of an oil as a function of temperature. The higher the viscosity index, the less the oil's viscosity depends on the temperature. Oil with a higher viscosity index has better fluidity at low temperatures (cold engine start) and higher viscosity at an already started engine.
Winter oils: SAE 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W, 25W - Identified by number and letter "W".
Summer oils: SAE 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 - Indicates number without letters.
Universal oils: SAE 0W-20, 0W-30, 0W-40, 0W-50, 0W-60, 5W-20, 5W-30, 5W-40, 5W-50, 5W-60, 10W-20, 10W - 30, 10W-40, 10W-50, 10W-60, 15W-30, 15W-40, 15W-50, 15W-60, 20W-30, 20W-40, 20W-50, 20W-60. The designation consists of a combination of winter and summer series, separated by dashes.
In cold winter conditions, engine oil must be fluid enough to start the vehicle easily and safely. T
he heated oil should be thick enough to form a large enough oil layer to protect against the premature wear of the engine rubbing against each other.
Classification of two-stroke oils
API Two-Stroke Engine Oil Classification (American Petroleum Institute)
1) Oil classes of two-stroke air cooled engines: TA, TB and TC.
2) Two-stroke boat engines - TD.
The further the second letter of the alphabet, the higher the oil.
JASO Two-Stroke Engine Oil Classification (Japanese Automobile Standards Organization)
Oil classes for two-stroke engines: FA, FB and FC.
The further the second letter of the specification, the higher the oil in the alphabet.
ISO 2-Stroke Engine Oil Classification
(Classification is mainly based on JASO specifications.)
Engine oil grades: E-GB, E-GC and E-GD.
The further the third letter of the specification, the higher the oil in the alphabet.
NMMA Two-Stroke Engine Oil Classification (National Marine Manufacture Association)
Two-stroke engine oil standard for outboard motors: TC-W3.
Engine oil change intervals
The oil change intervals take into account the differences between ideal and practical driving conditions. The oil change intervals recommended by the vehicle manufacturers are more about ideal conditions, i.e. traveling long distances at a steady speed.
Intensive city driving will certainly require more engine load and hence shorter oil change intervals.
API recommends shortened oil change intervals:
1) when the car is idling for a long time;
2) driving in sandy and dusty places;
3) when driving in cold weather with the engine not warmed up;
4) at short driving distances (<15 km);
5) towing another vehicle, trailer;
6) other heavy loads on the engine.
It should be borne in mind that we live in a changing climate. Most of the vehicles here run exactly under the above-mentioned adverse conditions and require more frequent oil changes than those mentioned in the manual.
Oil consumption will be higher at higher power, engine wear, temperature fluctuations, inaccurate oil viscosity. Liquid oil will spend more than a thick car.
Occasionally you may just think that you have started to spend more on your car oil, then make sure that the gauge reached the bottom of the crankcase during the measurement and try to remember whether you have been driving in different driving conditions - cold weather or congestion.
* Note! Without timely replacement of the air filters, sand and dust can enter the engine with the air. They can penetrate the oil tank and system, which will accelerate the oxidation of the oil and wear of engine parts.
Specification for transmission oils
API (American Petroleum Institute)
1) GL-1 - oil without additives.
2) GL-4 - oil enriched with EP additives.
3) GL-5 - oil enriched with high levels of EP additives. Suitable for heavy duty and heavy duty applications. Suitable for hypoid axes.
4) MT-1 - an oil designed specifically for mechanical transmissions.
The SAE (Society of Automotie Engineers) classification of transmission oils indicates the grade of oil viscosity.
The SAE for transmission oils is different from the SAE for engine oils. Transmission oils have higher rates.
Some vehicle manufacturers recommend using engine oil for transmissions that is sufficiently enriched with the necessary additives.